Alfabetik Ödüllü kişi arama
William H. Stein
Ben üç çocuk Freed M. ve Beatrice Borg Stein ikinci, New York, 25 Haziran 1911 doğdu. Babam özellikle sağlık ile ilgili olarak büyük ölçüde, toplumsal işlerine ilgilenen bir iş adamı oldu ve New York Tüberküloz ve Sağlık Derneği, Montefiore Hastanesi ve diğerleri gibi konularda onun tam zaman ayırabilmek için yaşam oldukça erken emekli . Annem, çok büyük ölçüde toplumsal işlerine ilgi ve hayatında en çok New York çocukları iyileştirmeye adamıştır. Benim çocukluk döneminde, ilaç ya da temel bir bilim girmek için hem de ailem çok cesaret aldım.
Benim erken eğitim, New York Columbia Üniversitesi Teachers College, ilerici bana yaratıcı sanatlar, müzik, ve yazılı olarak aktif bir ilgi beslediği ve o zaman için kabul edildi bir okul Lincoln Okulu'nda oldu. Ben, son derece değerli ve ilginç bir olduğunu kanıtladı kimya benim ilk ders vardı. , Çünkü ben daha çok daha sert ve çok daha zorlu bir eğitim deneyimi değişmiş olmasına rağmen, ben ne zaman onaltı hakkında bu okulu bıraktı ve zamanında oldu yani Phillips Exeter Academy, New England, mükemmel bir hazırlık okuluna gitti at Lincoln vardı. Exeter'de yazılı hassas standartları ile tanıştı, ve çalışma genellikle üzerinde sanırım beni çok iyi yerine durdu ve zevk gibi ilerici bir okul ve bir daha talepkar okul kombinasyonu olduğuna inanıyorum ideal bir hazırlık. Exeter, bir çok akademik seçkin kariyer rağmen, ekonomik bunalım derinliklerde 1933 yılında üniversiteden mezun oldu, çok keyifli oldu Harvard gitti. Ben üniversitede kimya alanında ihtisas ve Harvard Üniversitesi'nde bu konuda bir yüksek lisans öğrencisi olarak devam etmeye karar verdi. Bu benim ilk lisansüstü yıl en azından söylemek vasat çünkü oldukça talihsiz bir deneyim olduğunu kanıtladı. Ben çok daha düz, organik kimya daha biyokimya hoşunuza gidebilecek bana önerilen iken neredeyse bilim alanında kariyer terk etmeye hazır.
Bir sonraki yıl, sonra, New York Columbia Üniversitesi Doktorlar ve Cerrahlar College of geç Hans Clarke tarafından yönetilen Biyokimya Bölümü, transfer etti. Columbia Üniversitesi'nde bölüm benim için göz açıcı oldu. Profesör Clarke, büyüleyici ve aktif öğretim ve lisansüstü öğrencilerin neredeyse eşit derecede uyarıcı bir grup kendini çevreleyen başardı. Bunların her ikisi de kısa bir süre içinde muazzam bir öğrendim. Tezimin sonra koroner arter hastalığı önemli bir rol oynadığı düşünülen ve ben geç 1937 yılında Columbia Üniversitesi'nde benim derecesi için gereksinimleri tamamladı ve Rockefeller Enstitüsü tarafından doğrudan Max Bergmann laboratuvara gitti elastin protein, amino asit analizi, ilgili .
Hala bir lisansüstü öğrenci iken, 1936 yılında, o günden bu yana bana büyük destek olmuştur Phoebe Hockstader evlenmek için en iyi servet vardı. David F., 33; Robert J., 28 Biz, William H. Jr, 35 isimli üç oğlu var.
Bergmann, ben hala hissediyorum, bu yüzyılın çok büyük bir protein kimyager biriydi ve o da, doktora sonrası meslektaşlarının en yetenekli grup kendini surround yeteneği vardı. Ben orada tabii ki, Dr Moore, ve, ek olarak, Dr. Joseph S. Fruton, Dr. Emil L. Smith, Dr. Klaus Hofmann, Dr. Paul Zamecnik, ve diğerleri. Zamanda laboratuvar Bergmann, kendini protein kimya alanında araştırma iş hakkında çok şey öğrenmek mümkün değildi ve seçkin bir grup onu etrafında vardı.
I was born June 25, 1911 in New York City, the second of three children, to Freed M. and Beatrice Borg Stein. My father was a business man who was greatly interested in communal affairs, particularly those dealing with health, and he retired quite early in life in order to devote his full time to such matters as the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association, Montefiore Hospital and others. My mother, too, was greatly interested in communal affairs and devoted most of her life to bettering the lot of the children of New York City. During my childhood, I received much encouragement from both of my parents to enter into medicine or a fundamental science.
My early education was at the Lincoln School of Teachers College of Columbia University in New York City, a school which was considered progressive for that time and which fostered in me an active interest in creative arts, music, and writing. There I had my first course in chemistry which proved to be an extremely valuable and interesting one. I left this school when I was about sixteen and went to an excellent preparatory school in New England, namely Phillips Exeter Academy, which was at the time, although it has changed since, a much more rigid and much more demanding educational experience than I had had at Lincoln. It was at Exeter that I was introduced to standards of precision of writing, and of work generally which I think has stood me in very good stead, and I believe that the combination of a progressive school and a more demanding school such as I enjoyed was an ideal preparation. From Exeter I went to Harvard where I had a very enjoyable, although not a very academically distinguished career, and graduated from the college in 1933 at the depths of the economic depression. I had majored in chemistry at college and decided to continue on at Harvard as a graduate student in that subject. This proved to be a rather unfortunate experience because my first graduate year was undistinguished, to say the very least. I was almost ready to abandon a career in science when it was suggested to me that I might enjoy biochemistry much more than straight organic chemistry.
The next year, I transferred to the Department of Biochemistry, then headed by the late Hans Clarke at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University in New York. The department at Columbia was an eye-opener for me. Professor Clarke had succeeded in surrounding himself with a fascinating and active faculty and an almost equally stimulating group of graduate students. From both of these I learned a tremendous amount in a short time. My thesis involved the amino acid analysis of the protein elastin, which was then thought to play a role in coronary artery disease and I completed the requirements for my degree at Columbia late in 1937 and went directly to the laboratory of Max Bergmann at the Rockefeller Institute.
While still a graduate student, I had the extreme good fortune to marry, in 1936, Phoebe Hockstader who has been of enormous support to me ever since. We have three sons, William H. Jr., 35; David F., 33; Robert J., 28.
Bergmann was, I still feel, one of the very great protein chemists of this century and he, too, had the ability to surround himself with a most talented group of postdoctoral colleagues. In the laboratory at the time that I was there were, of course, Dr. Moore, and, in addition, Dr Joseph S. Fruton, Dr Emil L. Smith, Dr. Klaus Hofmann, Dr. Paul Zamecnik, and many others. It was impossible not to learn a great deal about the business of research in protein chemistry from Bergmann, himself, and from the outstanding group he had around him.
The task of Moore and myself was to devise accurate analytical methods for the determination of the amino acid composition of proteins, because Bergmann firmly believed, as did we, that the amino acid analysis of proteins bore the same relationship to these macromolecules that elementary analysis bore to the chemistry of simpler organic substances. It was during this period in the mid-thirties that Bergmann and Fruton and their colleagues were working out the specificity of proteolytic enzymes, work which has had a profound effect upon our knowledge of how enzymes function and has made it possible to use these proteolytic enzymes as tools for the degradation and subsequent derivation of structure of protein molecules ever since.
Work on proteins was suspended during the war for other more pressing matters and Dr. Moore left the laboratory in order to be of assistance in Washington and elsewhere. Our entire group was engaged in working for the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Bergmann's death in 1944 robbed the world of a distinguished chemist and, of course, left the laboratory without a chief. The group continued to function until the end of the war at which time Moore and I had the very great good fortune to be asked by Dr. Herbert Gasser, Director of the Institute, to stay on at Rockefeller with the freedom to do anything we pleased in the biochemical field.
In the meantime, had come the remarkable developments in England on the separation of amino acids by paper chromatography by Martin and Synge and Sanger had started his classical work on the derivation of the structure of insulin. It was then, perhaps, not surprising that Moore and I resumed our collaboration, and following a suggestion of Synge began to try to separate amino acids on columns of potato starch. We were very fortunate in hitting upon a type of potato starch which was well-suited to our needs almost immediately, and from that day on began to work first on the amino acid analysis, and then on the structural analysis of proteins. From columns of potato starch, we progressed to columns of ion exchange resins, developed the automatic amino acid analyzer, and together with a group of very devoted and extremely skillful collaborators, began work on the structure of ribonuclease. These columns were also used for other purposes. In the course of the early work, we developed a drop-counting automatic fraction collector which is now a common instrument in most biochemical laboratories throughout the world.